Valerian Root: Nature’s Answer to Sleep and Anxiety


Valerian root, derived from the Valeriana officinalis plant, has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for various ailments. This perennial flowering plant, native to Europe and parts of Asia, has gained popularity worldwide for its potential health benefits, particularly in addressing sleep disorders and anxiety. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the history, uses, benefits, and potential side effects of valerian root.

The History of Valerian Root

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Ancient Roots in Traditional Medicine

Valerian root’s use in medicine dates back to ancient Greece and Rome. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, described its properties, while the famous Greek physician Galen prescribed it for insomnia. Throughout the centuries, valerian root has been a staple in traditional European and Chinese medicine.

Modern Rediscovery

In the 21st century, valerian root has experienced a resurgence in popularity as people seek natural alternatives to pharmaceutical sleep aids and anti-anxiety medications. Its gentle yet effective properties have made it a favorite among those looking for holistic health solutions.

Understanding Valerian Root

Garden Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) | Oooh, another new … | Flickr

Botanical Characteristics

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a tall, perennial plant with pink or white flowers that bloom in the summer. The root of the plant, which is used medicinally, has a strong, distinctive odor often described as earthy or musky.

Active Compounds

The therapeutic effects of valerian root are attributed to several compounds, including:

  1. Valerenic acid
  2. Isovaleric acid
  3. Valepotriates
  4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

These compounds are believed to work synergistically to produce valerian’s calming and sleep-promoting effects.

Health Benefits of Valerian Root

Improving Sleep Quality

One of the most well-known benefits of valerian root is its ability to improve sleep quality. Research suggests that valerian root may help:

A woman sleeping in a bed with a quilt · Free Stock Photo

  • Reduce the time it takes to fall asleep
  • Increase total sleep time
  • Improve overall sleep quality

A meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Medicine found that valerian root significantly improved sleep quality compared to placebo.

Reducing Anxiety and Stress

Valerian root has shown promise in reducing symptoms of anxiety and stress. Its calming properties may help:

  • Lower heart rate
  • Reduce muscle tension
  • Promote relaxation

A study published in Phytotherapy Research demonstrated that valerian root extract significantly reduced anxiety symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

Alleviating Menstrual Cramps

Some women find relief from menstrual cramps by using valerian root. Its muscle-relaxing properties may help ease uterine contractions and reduce pain associated with menstruation.

Supporting Cognitive Function

Preliminary research suggests that valerian root may have neuroprotective properties, potentially benefiting cognitive function and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases.

How to Use Valerian Root

Valerian root | American College of Healthcare Sciences | Flickr

Forms of Valerian Root

Valerian root is available in several forms:

  1. Dried root for tea
  2. Liquid extracts
  3. Capsules or tablets
  4. Tinctures

Recommended Dosage

The appropriate dosage of valerian root can vary depending on the form and individual needs. Generally, the following doses are recommended:

  • For sleep: 300-600 mg of dried valerian root extract, taken 30 minutes to two hours before bedtime
  • For anxiety: 120-200 mg, three times daily

Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Potential Side Effects and Precautions

Common Side Effects

While valerian root is generally considered safe for most people, some may experience side effects such as:

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Stomach upset
  • Vivid dreams

Interactions and Precautions

Valerian root may interact with certain medications, including:

  • Sedatives
  • Antidepressants
  • Antihistamines

Pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children should avoid using valerian root without medical supervision.

Scientific Research on Valerian Root

Sleep Studies

Numerous studies have investigated the effects of valerian root on sleep quality. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior found that valerian root significantly improved sleep quality in participants with insomnia.

Anxiety Research

Research on valerian root’s anxiolytic properties has shown promising results. A study in the Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology demonstrated that valerian root extract had comparable anxiety-reducing effects to diazepam, a common anti-anxiety medication.

Growing and Harvesting Valerian

Valerian growing near Cove Car Park... © Jennifer Petrie cc-by-sa/2.0 ...

Cultivation Tips

For those interested in growing their own valerian plants:

  • Choose a partially shaded location with well-draining soil
  • Plant in spring or fall
  • Space plants about 18 inches apart
  • Water regularly, keeping soil moist but not waterlogged

Harvesting and Processing

Valerian roots are typically harvested in the fall of the second or third year of growth. After harvesting, the roots should be washed, chopped, and dried for use.

Valerian Root in Popular Culture

Valerian root has made its way into popular culture, appearing in literature, film, and even music. Its calming properties have been referenced in various works, contributing to its mystique and popularity.

Comparing Valerian Root to Other Natural Sleep Aids

Valerian vs. Melatonin

While both are used for sleep support, valerian root works differently than melatonin. Valerian is thought to enhance GABA activity, while melatonin regulates the sleep-wake cycle.

Valerian vs. Chamomile

Chamomile is another popular natural sleep aid. While both have calming properties, valerian root is generally considered more potent for addressing insomnia.


Valerian root offers a natural approach to improving sleep quality and reducing anxiety. Its long history of use and growing body of scientific research make it an intriguing option for those seeking alternative remedies. However, as with any supplement, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating valerian root into your wellness routine. By understanding its benefits, proper usage, and potential side effects, you can make an informed decision about whether valerian root is right for you.

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